Record Details

van der Made, J.;Stefanovic, I.
A small tapir from the Turolian of Kreka (Bosnia) and a discussion on the biogeography and stratigraphy of the Neogene tapirs
Neues Jahrbuch Fur Geologie Und Palaontologie-Abhandlungen
Journal Article
upper miocene mammalia europe perissodactyla faunas china Tapir Bibliography
A small tapir from Kreka (Bosnia) is described and assigned to Tapiriscus pannonicus KRETZOI, 1951. This rare form is becoming better known. The species appeared in Europe during the early Late Miocene and after the Mid-Vallesian Crisis it became the more common or only, European tapir, till it became extinct near the end of the Miocene. The biogeography and abundance of the Tapiridae seems to be closely related to global climate. There are three periods of relative abundance of tapirs in the Neogene of Europe. Primitive tapirs were abundant in Europe and North America during the earliest Miocene, but then disappeared. The climatic optimum around the Early - Middle Miocene transition is a "tapir-vacuum" in Europe and America, while tapirs survived in China. At the beginning of the Mid-Miocene cooling, Tapirus appeared in Europe and Tapiravus in North America. At the beginning of the Late Miocene, Tapirus became abundant in Europe and dispersed into North America and a little later Tapiriscus, which resembles Tapiravus, appeared in Europe. During the latest Miocene, the small tapirs (Tapiriscus/Tapiravus) became extinct in both Europe and North America. Tapirus reappeared in Europe during the late Miocene, and survived till about 2.7 Ma, when the climate became colder and more seasonal. Tapirs tended to spread when humid, but not necessarily warm, conditions prevailed and when seasonality did not have a great impact on the vegetation. The distribution of Tapirus shows some parallels to that of Middle and Late Miocene hominoids and pliopithecids.
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