Record Details

Norconk, M. A.;Grafton, B. W.;Conklin-Brittain, N. L.
Seed dispersal by neotropical seed predators
American Journal of Primatology
Journal Article
seeds predispersal and postdispersal seed predation seed protection nutrition pitheciinae colobinae feeding ecology nasalis-larvatus central amazonia food selection bearded saki leaf-monkey fruit diet primates forest Tapir Bibliography
From a plant's perspective, the difference between a seed predator and a seed disperser should be straightforward: attract animals that will disperse seeds and defend seeds from potential predators. Unlike pulp-eating frugivores, seed predators regularly encounter diverse plant protective mechanisms. The purpose of this paper is to examine feeding constraints, morphological adaptations, and the mechanical process of seed predation. While there is evidence that some seed predators cause severe losses to seed crops, there is also evidence that seed predators enhance seed dispersal and germination. We also examine four methods by which neotropical seed predators may contribute to dispersal. 1) Seed predators examined here ingested fruit when seeds were full-sized, but not yet mature (i.e., seeds of mature fruit may be avoided by seed predators and available for dispersal by other frugivores). 2) Sympatric seed predators may ingest seeds from different plants thus reducing overall predator load on any individual plant. 3) Seed predators that manipulate seeds (e.g., remove pericarp and seed coat) may enhance germination if the prepared seeds are dropped, discarded, or buried and not ingested. 4) Small seeds may miss mastication and swallowed intact with a food bolus. The last mechanism is the most likely to contribute to seed dispersal by the widest array of vertebrate seed predators, but primate seed predators may facilitate seed dispersal using all four mechanisms. Therefore, the traditional dichotomy of seed predator vs. seed disperser oversimplifies the interactions between seed predators and plants. (C) 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Zj212 Times Cited:14 Cited References Count:110